Physiological factors 

  • Heart rate and other electrophysiological parameters before, during, and after maximal exercise test (electrocardiography using  Cardiosoft® V6.5 Diagnostic System.)
  • Heart rate variation before, during, and after maximal exercise test (Kubios HRV® software)
  • Arterial stiffness and arterial tone before and after maximal exercise test (PulseTrace PCA2® digital pulse contour analysis)
  • Arterial pulse wave velocity, arterial stiffness, systemic vascular resistance, left ventricular stroke volume, and cardiac output before and after maximal exercise test (Circmon® B202 impedance cardiography)
  • Oxygen consumption of vastus lateralis muscle during and after maximal exercise test (Continuous-wave near-infrared spectroscopy using Oxymon Mk III® NIRS system)
  • Finger skin temperature before and after maximal exercise test (Thermofocus 01500/A3 infra-red thermometer)
  • Carotid artery intima-media thickness, the existence of carotid artery plaques, and carotid artery elasticity (Acuson Sequoia 512 Ultrasound Mainframe® and Siemens Acuson Linear Array® transducer)
  • Systolic and diastolic blood pressure before, during, and after maximal exercise test (Heine Gamma® G7 aneroid sphygmomanometer)
  • Systolic beat-to-beat blood pressure and arterial baroreflex sensitivity (Finapress® software and Cafts® program) 
  • Cardiorespiratory fitness (Maximal exercise test using Ergoselect 200 K® electromagnetic cycle ergometer and Oxycon Pro® respiratory gas analyzer and  Hans-Rudolph® pediatric mask)