Biochemical factors 

  • Glucose and insulin metabolism (plasma glucose and serum insulin from fasting samples and 2-hour oral glucose tolerance tests)
  • Lipid, lipoprotein, and fatty acid metabolism (plasma LDL and HDL cholesterol, triglycerides, and VLDL and HDL triglycerides, fatty acid composition of plasma cholesteryl esters, phospholipids, and triglycerides, as well as estimated desaturase and elongase activities) 
  • Adipose tissue and skeletal muscle metabolism (serum or plasma leptin, leptin receptor, HMW-adiponectin, TNF-a, TNF-receptor, IGF-1, IL-6, IL-1ra and irisin)
  • Liver metabolism (plasma ALT and GT activity) 
  • Sex steroid metabolism (plasma estradiole, estrone, testosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone, progesterone, 17-hydroxyprogesterone, and 17-hydroxypregnenolone) using sensitive liquid chromatography - mass spectrometry method
  • Stress hormone metabolism (hair cortisol, 11deoxycortisol, cortisone, and corticosterone) using sensitive liquid chromatography - mass spectrometry method
  • Thyroid metabolism (serum TSH, T3, and T4)
  • Adrenal cortex mineralocorticoid metabolism (plasma aldosterone) 
  • Vitamin D metabolism (serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D) 
  • Systemic low-grade inflammation (serum hs-CRP and uric acid)
  • Redox regulation and oxidative stress (serum or plasma total and oxidized glutathione, glutathione redox ratio, protein carbonyls, oxygen radical absorbance capacity, malondialdehyde, and lipid hydroperoxides) 
  • Plasma and saliva metabolite profiling (glucose, lipid, lipoprotein, fatty acid, liver, sex steroid, and stress hormone metabolism) using liquid chromatography - mass spectrometry